做自在的华裔还是自为的华裔?

民族民权民生 平等世界 民有民享民治 大同人间

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Xiaoming Guo 郭晓明

图:多伦多铁路华工纪念雕塑

 

民族民权民生 平等世界

民有民享民治 大同人间

何谓自在的华裔?自在的华裔,就是华裔做为一个族裔,其经济地位、社会地位和政治地位由当下的社会环境所决定,不以华裔自身意愿所左右。在过去两年中,华裔积极参政议政,积极参加各级政府乃至党内选举,然其竞选成果令人扼腕,比起印度裔、穆斯林等其他少数族裔自叹不如。这表明如今的现实中华裔依然是一个自在的族裔。

何谓自为的华裔?自为的华裔就是华裔做为一个族裔掌握了自身的命运,把族裔的经济和文化资源转化为政治力量用于提高族裔自身的社会地位和政治地位。即族裔的经济地位、社会地位和政治地位不再任由社会环境摆布,而是族裔有了群体意识,整个族裔有了改变自身命运的觉悟,而不是把自身的命运托付给社会环境以期搭免费顺路车。

我们华裔有谦虚的态度,严于律己宽以待人。职场上不好意思照顾自己族裔,为的是避免种族主义的瓜田李下,以为我们是最不主张种族主义的族裔。但是,这并没有使得华裔做为族裔就消失了。早期《排华法案》时期,华裔是受歧视的族裔,华裔没有选举权,被禁止在许多专业行业就业,华裔被逼在唐人街互助才得以维持生计,历史上唐人街的族裔的维持是社会和法律环境压力造成的结果,不是华裔想维持为一个族裔,而是环境迫使华裔不得不维持为一个族裔,这是自在的华裔。

《排华法案》撤销以后,法律环境变了,但是,社会环境和文化环境还继续维持着一个华裔的族裔。国宝银行案就是一个国家体制歧视华裔的案件。南美法律和文化环境不同,许多华裔后裔融入了当地社会,并被当地社会同化,而且经过混血,许多有几分之几华裔血统的人已经不是华裔了,因为混血使得他们的黄皮肤特征已经不明显了。但是,北美就不一样了,只要是黄皮肤,即便不懂中文,即便英语是第一语言,即便信奉了基督教,要入常青藤大学依然受到限制。关颖姗是地地道道天真无邪的香蕉人,被体育评论员说成不是美国人。香蕉人依然是自在的华裔,是文化环境和社会环境造成的不由自主的自在的华裔。不是我们想维持一个族裔认同,而是环境迫使我们无法摆脱族裔认同。如果我们有不同政见,辩论对方辩论不过的时候,对方就会攻击我们是中国渗透,以此压制我们的言论自由和思想自由。歧视华裔成为地缘政治超限战的一个手段。

华裔族裔意识薄弱即源于华夏文化的大同思想,我们本来就不在乎族裔之分,而是社会歧视迫使我们形成了族裔认同。然而,华裔的族裔意思被地方方言弱化,被两岸三地意识形态弱化,被冷战意识形态弱化。同样有黄皮肤,同样有中国血统,同样说中国话,同样有中国文化背景,一些台湾人否认自己是华裔,一些香港人否认自己是华裔,一些华裔越南人否认自己是华裔,一些大陆来的华裔以诋毁中华文化和维护原教旨西方文化来支撑自己的优越感,一种融入主流文化的优越感。李文和是台湾人,李文和是融入主流的忠诚的美国人,但是,一个莫须有罪名把他从主流社会打回了边缘化的华裔。不管是台湾人、香港人、越南人还是“融入主流”的大陆人,无论这些人如何尽量拉大他们与中国的距离,在西方冷战思维风靡的今天,他们依然逃脱不了无可奈何的自在的华裔的命运。

那些否认自己为华裔的自在的华裔不认为改变华裔地位有什么用处,他们认为华裔是丑陋的,要消灭华裔,融入主流。但是,何以那些融入主流的欧洲各族裔还得以保留犹太倚、爱尔兰裔、西班牙裔、意大利裔、德裔等族裔身份而加入主流呢?为什么其他族裔可以入籍就进入了主流社会而华裔第一代移民都得经受痛苦的去族裔化过程,而第二代以至第N代还是被边缘化的自在的华裔呢?华裔要么甘愿为自在的华裔在社会边缘徘徊,要么成为自为的族裔成为主流社会之平等一员,没有其他出路可走。华裔是一种诅咒还是一种幸运,就看华裔是甘愿为自在的族裔还是奋起成为一个自为的族裔。

北美华裔有许多有识之士,他们组织政治团体和社会团体,为提高族裔的社会地位和政治地位作出了重大贡献。他们是华裔成为自为的族裔的胚芽。但是,华裔要成为自为的族裔,必须是大多数华裔以自己为华裔感到自豪而不是自卑,都意识到北美民主社会的族裔平等权利是族裔内团结一心自己争取才能得来的,而不是宪法能够自动给予的。如果宪法自动给予公民社会和政治的平等权利,就不会有《排华法案》这种历史事件发生,就不会有李文和案、国宝银行案,陈霞芬和郗小星案发生,就无需宪法权利法案规定结社自由和言论自由等民主权利。民主权利是用来争取和保护少数族裔平等权利的武器,民主权利是手段而不是目的。有民主权利不用,那就是把华裔的命运交给其他族裔去安排,结果就是华裔成为被迫的被边缘化的自在的族裔。

华裔什么时候成为自为的族裔了,华裔就有希望维护自身的公民平等权利了。当大部分华裔意识到自己的族裔身份是难以用杰克逊换白皮肤手术那样去除的时候,当那些最喜欢西方民主的社会活动家们不是对民主叶公好龙而是真正实践公民权利为华裔族裔争取平等权益的时候,华裔就有望掌握自身的命运,成为自为的族裔,避免卢刚和蒋国兵这类悲剧,使得华裔的天份得以充分发挥,为北美社会建设发展发挥更大的作用,成为主流社会平等之一员。

图:Kamloops 华人公墓铁路华工墓碑

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